Frostbite can occur if the skin is exposed to freezing temperatures for too long. This type of damage often affects the extremities of the body such as the ears, nose, fingers, and toes. If not properly treated, frostbite can lead to serious complications. Here’s how to prevent it.
Wear several layers of warm clothes, and make sure you’re covered from head to toe when you venture outside in cold weather. A wool hat, mittens, a scarf, and boots are all winter wardrobe essentials. You should also invest in a quality, waterproof winter coat.
Dampness promotes heat loss. If your clothes get wet while you’re outside, be sure to change them as soon as possible.
Limit your outings
Avoid staying outside for too long when the temperature drops, especially if you aren’t wearing the right clothes. When you do spend time outdoors in winter, prioritize activities that keep you moving. Don’t forget to take breaks, preferably indoors, so you can refuel with a snack and hot beverage.
Check the forecast
Always check the weather before you leave the house in winter. Pay particular attention to extreme cold warnings, and don’t hesitate to reschedule your planned outing for a day when it’s safer to be outdoors for an extended period of time.
If you notice early signs of frostbite, such as cold, numb, or reddish skin, get inside and slowly warm up the affected areas.
Newborns, adults over the age of 65, and people with chronic health conditions are more sensitive to the effects of cold weather than healthy adults and children.
Read this before you shovel snow
Shoveling snow is a job for an athlete, even though people tend to think it is a routine activity that anyone can do.
In fact, shoveling snow takes a huge toll on the heart and back. One shovel of wet snow weighs 16 pounds. If you shovel 12 loads a minute, then in 10 minutes, you’ve moved 2,000 pounds, according to a study in the Journal of the American Medical Association.
About 100 Americans on average die each year because of snow removal exertion, according to the Denver Post. About 12,000 suffer injuries that require a trip to the emergency room, according to a 16-year study reported in PubMed.
One key is to keep ahead of the drifts. Push snow several times while the snow is feathery, cold, and shallow before it becomes heavy, wet, and deep.
If you must shovel:
* Keep your spine in an upright, neutral position.
* Whenever you can push the snow — don’t shovel it. You can use your large muscles in the hips and legs for pushing.
If you do have to lift:
* Take small bites of the snow with the shovel only about a fourth full.
* Use your leg muscles to lift the load.
* Keep the load low to the ground and close to your body.
* Avoid throwing the snow if you can. If you must throw it, throw light loads.
Breaks are critical
How long you can work depends on how heavy the snow is, your physical condition, and how cold it is outside.
* If you feel fatigued, pain, or shortness of breath, rest until you feel normal again. If you experience shortness of breath for a prolonged period, see your doctor immediately.
How to avoid getting sick overseas
Do you have an upcoming trip? If you’re headed abroad, it’s important to take precautions to avoid getting sick. You don’t want to ruin your travel plans by accidentally eating or drinking something that makes you ill.
Remember, even if you’ve received the recommended vaccinations and taken preventive medication, you won’t be protected against common pathogens and bacteria. You should still adhere to the following tips to avoid getting sick:
• Only eat fruits and vegetables that are cooked and peeled
• Avoid raw food, especially shellfish and salads
• Don’t eat food that’s left sitting out uncovered
• Only drink water that’s boiled or bottled and opened in front of you
• Skip the ice cubes unless you’re sure they’re made with decontaminated water
• Avoid unpasteurized dairy products
• Don’t eat food from street cart vendors
If you’re careful about what you eat and drink, it’s likely you’ll remain healthy when you travel overseas.
Ski fever: The highest slopes can cause mountain fever
For doctors and nurses at Colorado’s highest elevations, ski season means a steady flow of casualties from a little-understood problem: acute mountain sickness.
Skiers are already for the risk of broken bones and frostbite, but they often don’t know how mountain sickness works, and resorts don’t tell them. The condition is caused by a decrease in oxygen in the blood at higher altitudes. It affects people who travel rapidly from sea level to elevations over 8,000 feet. A more serious condition, high-altitude pulmonary edema, is fatal in 1 percent of cases.
Thousands of skiers experience symptoms within a day of arriving: headaches, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, insomnia, loss of appetite, and vomiting. About 25 percent to 40 percent of visitors experience symptoms of altitude sickness. Copper Mountain Ski Resort warns would-be visitors about it. Their flier says it creates a “hangover” feeling and pregnant women, people with anemia, or people with chronic heart and lung conditions should be cautious.
Aspen, Vail, and some other Colorado mountains have bases at or above 8,000 feet, but people at hotels experience less altitude sickness. The hotels lie at lower elevations, allowing visitors more time to adjust. The peak at Aspen rises to 12,510 feet. At Telluride, the peak is 12,255. Breckenridge peaks rise to 12,998 feet and Copper Mountain peaks top out at 12,313 feet.
Skiers coming from sea level locations such as Chicago (668 feet) or Michigan (839 feet) should allow time for their bodies to adjust before going to the higher peaks.
When should you go to the emergency room?
It’s easy to see that an accident victim needs emergency treatment. Judging whether a medical condition requires a trip to the emergency room (ER) is more difficult.
Get to the ER fast, say doctors at Harvard Medical School, if any of these problems occur:
Severe abdominal pain. Especially if there is vomiting, swelling or tenderness of the abdomen, or fever. This may signal appendicitis, bowel obstruction, or a perforated organ.
Breathing difficulty. Go quickly if you have heart or lung disease, asthma, chest pain, rapid heartbeat, swelling, dizziness, pale clammy skin, or swollen tongue or throat.
Chest pain. People with coronary artery disease or angina should get help if pain begins during exercise and persists despite 10 minutes of rest or under-the-tongue nitroglycerin. It could signal a heart attack.
Confusion or changes in consciousness. Sudden onset of confusion or memory loss is an emergency. The altered mental status could be a sign of stroke or other serious problem.
Fractures. Suspected fractures should be evaluated promptly, except in the case of a finger or toe.
Headaches. Most can be treated in the doctor’s office. Go to the ER if a headache is accompanied by confusion, nausea, and vomiting, loss of sensation or muscle strength, fever or sensitivity to light.
Numbness or tingling. Widespread numbness or tingling can be due to a stroke. Get help immediately if one side of the body is affected, vision is blurred or distorted or if speaking is difficult.
Rash. Rash accompanies many illnesses, is a common reaction to certain foods, and usually does not require immediate treatment. But purple spots on the skin accompanied by fever are signs of serious illness such as meningitis. Hives that appear after an insect sting are a signal to get immediate treatment.
Vomiting. This is an emergency if it produces blood or material that looks like coffee grounds. These are symptoms of serious problems that should be treated immediately.
Cost is never a consideration when your life is in jeopardy. For these symptoms, get emergency room treatment as soon as possible.
DNA determines your reaction to caffeine
Caffeine is the most widely consumed psychostimulant in the world, but did you know your genetic code can determine if it has a positive or negative effect on your body? Here’s a quick overview.
Consuming caffeine increases blood pressure and dilates blood vessels. While this can have a feel-good effect on some people, others may experience heart palpitations as a result.
One of the reasons for this difference in reactions is a specific enzyme that’s responsible for metabolizing it. Genetic variation determines how fast your kidneys can eliminate caffeine from your body. Consequently, it has practically no effect on people whose bodies can get rid of it quickly, but, it can increase the risk of hypertension in people whose bodies eliminate it slowly.
The amount of coffee you drink may also be linked to your DNA. Scientists have pinpointed two specific genes that are directly associated with how many cups of joe people drink per day. Additionally, these genetic sequences indicate whether someone feels the need to consume caffeine, and if so, how often.
If you’re concerned about your caffeine intake, make sure to discuss the issue with your doctor at your next appointment.
The science of sweating
Everybody does it, but we usually try to hide the evidence. Sweating is a normal part of living, an essential function that helps keep us alive. It’s satisfying during hot yoga sessions or a long workout, but for the most part, we spend our adult lives trying to hide the evidence with anti-perspirants, dress shields, moisture-wicking fabrics, and for the particularly sweaty among us, Botox injections in the armpits to paralyze sweat glands.
Sweat is more than just something that stains our favorite shirts, according to Sarah Everts in her book The Joy of Sweat, published earlier this year. It’s a built-in cooling system, a complex network of glands that release fluid, which evaporates from heated skin and produces a cooling effect that lets us go outside on a hot day or enjoy a workout without risking death. And far from being gross and unsightly, sweat is an evolutionary marvel, an adaptation that allowed early humans to disperse into diverse climates and forage for food during daylight hours while many predators retreated to the shade for survival.
And that unpleasant odor that we associate with sweat? Our bodies don’t actually create that. Larger sweat glands, such as those in the armpits and groin, secrete sweat with a slightly different molecular profile, with fatty particles that bacteria love to feast on. In turn, the bacteria produce waste that, to human noses, smells like rancid butter and wet dog, among other things, according to Everts.
But even if your armpits are a little ripe, don’t kick yourself over it because, as Everts reminds readers, it could be much worse. Some animals spend their days rolling in mud, while others urinate or vomit on themselves to produce a similar, though much less efficient cooling effect.