Some may see this as “men who had the mark of the beast and those who worshiped his image.” (Rev 16:2)
Others may view it as technology benefiting the life of man.
A newly published international patent owned by Microsoft reveals a technology capable of being used to modify human behavior. Three inventors at Microsoft Technology Licensing, LLC, have developed what is called a Cryptocurrency System Using Body Activity Data.
Here’s how it works. A ”task” is given to a human. The human is monitored by a sensor. When the task has been successfully completed and verified, cryptocurrency is awarded to the human.
This cryptocurrency can then be used to satisfy debt (or spent) in the same fashion as existing currency. This is classic behavior modification.
Not specified in the patent is who decides which task to assign or to which humans.
According to the international patent application released March 26, this ‘system’ may award cryptocurrency to humans who are coupled to a computer server via a communications network.
These humans are connected to a server by means of sensors and user devices.
Imagine, for example, your neighbor Jack. He has a sensor either implanted within his body or worn externally. Jack has been given a task. This task arrives via his user device. As Jack performs the task, his sensor measures his body activity. This activity verifies that he has satisfactorily completed the task. His user device reports the completed task. Jack’s cryptocurrency account receives a deposit.
Digital currency itself is not new. The well-known Bitcoin has been around for more than 10-years. This newly patented Microsoft application, however, stretches the imagination. It combines human body sensors and human monitored actions with financial transactions.
The Microsoft patent speaks of using “human body activity associated with a task provided to a user.” But not specified is who specifically decides upon the task. Who is it that essentially says, “You do what we want, we pay you in the form of digital cash.”
Neither does the Microsoft patent discuss limits –not to mention accountability. In fact, the patent declares that its summary “is not intended to be used to limit the scope of the claimed subject matter.” Not limit the scope?
That’s worth keeping in mind while we take a closer look at sensors which might be within a human body or external.
The Microsoft patent refers to sensors including electroencephalogram (EEG) to detect electrical activity in the brain, ambulatory MRI, and near infrared spectroscopy to detect changes in oxygen levels of blood. These as well as heart rate, thermal, optical, and radio-frequency sensors report the human activity.
This may sound a bit like science-fiction. But it is certainly not. This is not a leap of science. It is an application of today’s science.
This is likewise true with respect to the human’s user device. Our neighbor Jack may be using as his ‘device’ one or a combination of such things as personal computer, server, cell phone, tablets, laptops, smart watches, and smart televisions. And all of this may be using a plurality of processors and memory-storing units.
All of this technology functions in such a way that neighbor Jack, or we ourselves, might be convinced to perform tasks in order to reap digital currency.
That’s behavior modification.
But don’t take my word for it. Read what Microsoft inventors Dustin Abramson, Derrick Fu, and Joseph Edwin Johnson, Jr. have to say about all this in the patent application better known as International Publication Number WO 2020/060606 of the World Intellectual Property Organization.
This might be a good time to consider which of our human behaviors we want to have modified.
We might likewise give thought to who it is that we trust to modify our behaviors.
Now, as an addendum read this:
(By Staff, Biohackinfo News, March 19, 2020)
Microsoft founder Bill Gates announced on March 18, 2020 during a “Reddit ‘Ask Me Anything’ session” that he is working on a new, invisible “quantum dot tattoo” implant that will track who has been tested for COVID-19 and who has been vaccinated against it.
According to BioHackInfo.Com: “The quantum-dot tattoos involve applying dissolvable sugar-based microneedles that contain a vaccine and fluorescent copper-based ‘quantum dots’ embedded inside biocompatible, micron-scale capsules. After the microneedles dissolve under the skin, they leave the encapsulated quantum dots whose patterns can be read to identify the vaccine that was administered.”
The Covid-19 vaccine is already under research and development and experts say it will likely be available in about 18 months. Will this mean forced vaccinations or perpetually “sheltering in place” for those who refuse the coronavirus vaccine?
Gates is simultaneously working on the ID2020 Certification Mark, which according to pymnts.com utilizes “immunization to serve as a platform for digital identity.”
The Gates Foundation has also formed an alliance with Accenture, IDEO.org, Gavi, and the Rockefeller Foundation to make ID2020 a reality.
Why Poor Self-discipline Can Destroy You
When you are self-disciplined, you can achieve anything you set your mind to. When you are undisciplined, you can’t even get started.
Self-discipline is one of those things that we all have, but few of us practice.
Have you ever thought about how much your life would change if you were more disciplined?
How would you feel if you lost weight, got healthier, or made more money if you just set goals and made a plan?
If you are lacking in self-discipline, you’re missing out on a lot. We all need discipline. It’s required for our daily lives.
Self-discipline is what allows people to get things done. Whether you’re a professional athlete or a college student, you need the self-discipline to succeed in life.
But there’s a flip side to self-discipline. You can either use it to achieve your goals or let it get in the way.
There’s nothing worse than being a slave to your own bad habits. Most people fail in life because they don’t discipline themselves enough to do what they need to do to succeed.
Bad habits can ruin your life, and there’s no way around them. Even if you want to change, it’s not easy. You must be very strong-willed to overcome these habits and start a new life.
Keep reading, and we’ll talk about how to beat your bad habits so that you can create the life you deserve.
In the world of psychology and personal development, we see a lot of people struggling with self-control and self-discipline.
They might not be able to control themselves enough to stay on track with the things they need to accomplish in life, so they wind up in situations where they feel like they’ve been defeated.
Self-discipline is difficult for many people to grasp, and most of us have been trained to believe that discipline and self-control are mutually exclusive.
This is one reason why so many people struggle with being able to control themselves and manage their own lives. They might give up on self-discipline and self-control, which they believe they’ll never have to deal with, and they wind up with situations where they’re incapable of controlling themselves, which they then get frustrated over and angry at.
It’s important to understand that self-discipline is an ability that all people have. It’s just that they’re not doing anything with it, or they’re not using it properly.
What’s important is that you’re able to use your self-discipline and self-control to help you live your life. You can’t just sit back and expect that someone else will take care of everything for you, and you can’t always rely on luck to pull through for you.
If you do, then you’re in trouble, and you’ll never be able to grow to your full potential. You need to have some sort of plan in place and be able to stick to it and follow it through. You also need to be able to handle any challenges that arise along the way.
Bad Habits Can Ruin Your Life
Some people have a tendency to make the same mistakes over and over again. These people might not even realize that they’re doing it.
In fact, they don’t even realize that they’re doing it, until it’s too late. The bad habits these people have become addicted to are ones that they’ve done for years and are now part of their subconscious, and they aren’t aware that they’re doing it.
They’re doing it unconsciously, and they might be able to identify why they do it, but they just don’t want to change. If you’re one of these people, you’ll have to devise a plan to beat the habit.
If you’re a smoker, you might have been smoking for years. You might be able to give reasons for why you do it, but if you were to try quitting, you’d realize just how difficult it is. It might be easier to just quit cold turkey.
It might be difficult to quit something like smoking, but it’s not impossible. You just need to put in the effort and willpower, and you’ll eventually be able to break the habit.
It’s possible to stop doing the habit altogether, but you need to be dedicated to stopping it completely. Don’t just go through the motions of trying to quit. If you don’t stop, then you’ll find yourself back at the same old point, and you’ll be repeating yourself and setting yourself up for failure.
You don’t want to do that. Your whole purpose in life should be to quit and never go back to being a habitual smoker. You shouldn’t set yourself up for failure because you’re hard-headed.
You’ve seen people who are addicted to drugs, but they’ll tell you that it’s a choice they make. They’re able to quit, but it’s a struggle because they can’t seem to break the habit.
It’s much harder to break a habit than it is to form one. While it’s true that habits can be formed, it’s almost impossible to break them. People do things over and over again because they’ve been doing them for years, and it’s ingrained in their subconscious.
When you’re able to break the habit, you’ll feel like a new person. It might take you a few days, weeks, or months to get to that point, but it’s worth it. You’ll be able to do a lot more with your life once you finally get past that point.
You Need Self-Discipline To Succeed In Life
If you were asked to think back to your childhood, you might remember a few things that you used to do and enjoy. Maybe you were a picky eater, or you had a short attention span. These habits might not be anything that would ever really stand out in your adult mind as being too problematic.
But they could be, and when it comes to breaking free of bad habits, it’s something that can easily happen. The only way to break these habits is to be aware of them, and to realize that you need to be disciplined enough to rid yourself of them.
Self-discipline is an incredibly important part of your life, and it is what will allow you to make changes that you might not be able to otherwise. There are a lot of things that you can’t control in your life, but you can control yourself and your choices.
In other words, you can’t control the world around you, but you can control how you react to things that happen to you and how you respond to people and situations.
If you have any type of addiction or a bad habit, then you can’t just “get over it” and magically forget about it. Your self-discipline has to be strong enough to let you put your bad habits to rest, and to let you change your lifestyle in order to do so.
If you don’t believe in yourself, then you won’t do it. It’s as simple as that. You need to have faith in yourself, and you need to see yourself as worthy of doing things that you normally wouldn’t have the desire to do.
You can’t just want to do something and have it magically come to fruition, because it never will. You need to make it happen. If you want to do it, you’ll need to be the one to actually do it.
Dr. Damian Fedoryka will be remembered and treasured with deep gratitude
On Wednesday, around 3:00 pm, there may be a traffic jam downtown because an hour earlier at St John the Baptist Church will have been the final farewell to a remarkable man, Dr. Damian Fedoryka. His extraordinary life was a connection here in Front Royal to a piece of history we don’t usually think about.
Damian Fedoryka was born in the Carpathian Mountains of Western Ukraine on November 2, 1940. By the time he was four, his father was in Auschwitz concentration camp. His mother could tell that the Russian occupation was inevitable, so she fled with Damian, his sister Marta, and baby brother Leo. His brother Leo “Levko” died in their walk to freedom from dysentery and was buried in a field by a farmer’s house. The trauma burned the memory into Damian’s mind, and years later, he returned to the same spot with some of his own children to finally complete the grieving process. When the war ended, the family was reunited in a Displaced Persons camp outside of Regensburg, Germany.
In 1948 they arrived in the United States, where Damian cleaned the poop out of their first home: a re-purposed chicken coop in someone’s back yard. The Catholic education system was still strong in those days, so the children were able to attend Catholic schools. They were in Mahwah, New Jersey, by the time Damian got a scholarship to Regis High School in New York City, and for four years, he rode the train an hour each way to attend. After high school, he got another scholarship to the Catholic University of Louvain in Belgium. There, he and other poor students lived with an old Ukrainian priest whose kindness he remembered his whole life.
After college, like the good American he was, Damian joined the Army and became a second lieutenant. The night before he was going to accept a permanent commission and deploy to Vietnam, he went to a dance at a Ukrainian community in New York City and met Irene Kondra, so he decided to stay in New York and pursue a Master’s Degree in Philosophy at Fordham University, and then a Ph.D. in Salzburg, Germany. He and Irene were married in 1966 and went on to have ten children. She died in 2010.
He taught at the University of Rhode Island and the University of Dallas, and in 1985_ he became President of Christendom College here in Front Royal. It was under his leadership that Christendom retired its earlier debt, built two new residence halls, and received its first full accreditation from the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools. These significant accomplishments created the foundation that allowed Christendom to launch its subsequent growth.
But Damian Fedoryka was called to do more. When Communism fell in Ukraine, he returned to his native land to help open the Ukrainian Catholic University in Lviv in 1992 – the first Catholic university to open on the territory of the former Soviet Union and the first university ever opened by an Eastern Catholic Church. He also taught philosophy at Franciscan University of Steubenville (Gaming Campus in Austria) and at Ave Maria College in Michigan. Soon after the passing of his beloved wife, he moved back to Front Royal, where several of his children had settled. He was the oldest member of Saints Joachim and Anna Ukrainian Catholic Parish on Linden Street in Front Royal.
All who met him knew him as a kind and patient man and a sage to countless people right up to the end. He leaves behind a close-knit family spread across the country: ten children and their spouses, thirty-five grandchildren, four great-grandchildren, and thousands of former students. His sons Alexander and Danylo are the founders of the Celtic/folk/rock band Scythian, which organizes the Appaloosa Festival to be held at Skyline Ranch Resort on Labor Day weekend.
Until we meet again, my friend
Recently, I attended a celebration of life for my departed friend Dr. David Carter Blanton.
When Pastor Roberson opened the floor up for comment, I found myself speechless as my emotions, remembering our life growing up, overcame me.
David and I were what I might define as Rust Belt friends (friendships that survive all lapses in time). As young boys, we became friends on Doc Sherman’s field located on Sherwood Avenue on our sandlot baseball and football field, emulating our favorite pro sports teams.
On that day, he became my quarterback and helped me establish a strong moral and ethical path in life. He demonstrated strong leadership skills by keeping a bunch of unruly kids in line by enforcing etiquette.
As a young man, I remember David being interested in topics such as futuristic vehicle designs, space travel, and medical science. As an adult, he continued his thirst for knowledge about new research and technology improvements.
A brilliant person with a sense of humor who was grounded and could fit into any social setting. Many of us remember his Dentistry practice, but his real contribution was his unselfish personal contributions to community charities.
David loved his family, community, and his country. In his final days, we never got to say goodbye, but I guess that was how it was supposed to end. He was my Quarterback, and I was blessed to be part of his life. Until we meet again, my friend.
Front Royal, Virginia
3 Questions to Ask Yourself Every Day
We’ve all heard the saying “if you don’t ask, you don’t get.” But what if we took that to another level and made the question into a daily habit? What if we asked ourselves three questions every day to improve our lives?
We’ve all been there before. Whether it was the day of our first job interview or a huge promotion, we’ve all had those moments where we felt nervous or anxious.
While some people thrive in these situations, others find themselves totally paralyzed. We’ve all had those days where we felt like giving up and just decided to quit. But here’s the good news: we don’t have to be like that.
In our fast-paced world, there is a constant barrage of information, advice, and tips from all kinds of sources.
This is especially true when it comes to self-improvement. We’re bombarded with so much information about personal development, that it can become hard to decide which bits of information are really worth putting into practice.
Luckily, we’ve put together a list of three questions you can ask yourself to help you choose what to focus on and what not to worry about.
Question #1: “Am I doing what I love?”
When you’re starting out in life, it can be easy to get caught up in the day-to-day routine of getting through the day. It seems like a lot of people are happy just going through the motions of life, but that can’t be the case.
It’s important to remember that life isn’t just about doing something you enjoy, but also being passionate about it. After all, no one ever becomes successful in life without putting in a lot of work, but that doesn’t mean you have to put in an equally large amount of work.
The key is to find what you really enjoy doing, and then take it to the next level. If you’re not sure what that means, try to look at your current job, and think about where you can make it better or even completely change the game altogether.
This will allow you to become successful in the long run, and you’ll find that you’re not only doing something you enjoy, but also something you’re passionate about. Don’t do anything just because you think you have to, because that will only make you miserable and unsatisfied.
Once you find something you love, you’ll realize that you’re on the right track to achieving your goals. The key is to keep yourself on track with the things you enjoy doing, and you can make it a reality.
Question #2: “What’s the worst that could happen?”
Many people tend to live in fear of failing or making a mistake. They think that if they fail, it will define them for life.
In reality, failure isn’t anything terrible. It’s simply an opportunity to learn. If you want to succeed in anything, the most important thing to keep in mind is that whatever you do will either be a success or a failure.
You’re only as good as your last attempt, and that means that you’re only as bad as your last attempt. If you fail at your last attempt, then you can still be successful overall.
Think of your success or failure as a game. If you play the game with integrity, you’re able to move forward and try again. You’re able to improve and become a better player in your particular game.
If you lose the game, it’s okay. It’s actually a good thing because you’re able to learn from your mistakes and figure out what you did wrong. It’s a chance to improve, and if you lose, you’re able to come back and get better.
It’s only when you don’t learn from your mistakes that you find yourself repeating the same mistakes over and over again.
Sometimes, when we’re working towards something, we get caught up in the excitement of it all and fail to take any precautions.
We’re always afraid of the worst that could happen, and in order to help ourselves get over that fear, we need to remind ourselves of what’s most likely to happen.
It’s easy to get too far ahead of ourselves and think we’ve already accomplished our goal. We get excited about the idea, and then just assume that everything will go as planned.
However, this doesn’t always happen that way. What’s worse is if we assume the worst-case scenario, and end up failing miserably because of that assumption.
Instead, what you need to do is make sure that you’ve already thought through the worst-case scenario so that you don’t fall victim to it. In order to do that, you should try to look at things in detail, so you can plan for them.
If you’re trying to make a new goal, you can start with a simple goal of what you want to achieve. Once you’ve done that, you’ll have a goal in mind.
Next, you’ll want to ask yourself what the worst-case scenario might be. Think about what’s most likely to happen, and then try to figure out how to deal with it.
For example, if you’re trying to get a new job, you might think that it’s going to be really difficult, but what you need to do is try to find out whether or not it is. You might discover that the job market is pretty slow right now, or that you need to do more in order to stand out and get noticed.
If you know that you need to do more, then you can start working on that instead. Instead of thinking that you’ll never be able to get the job, you can just focus on the fact that it’s still possible, and then start to work towards that goal.
This will help you stay focused on what you need to do, and you’ll be able to avoid getting discouraged by the fact that it might not be as easy as you’d hoped. By taking the time to prepare for the worst, you’ll be better prepared for the outcome of your goal.
Question #3: “What good have I done today?”
Many people don’t ever think about the importance of their accomplishments, and that’s a big mistake. Your life is only as good as the actions you take every day, and you can be proud of how you conduct yourself in every situation.
When you look back on the course of your life, you’ll realize that no matter what you’ve accomplished, it pales in comparison to what you’ve done to change other people’s lives.
You’ve gone out of your way to make a difference in other people’s lives, and that’s an amazing accomplishment. It’s something that most people can’t even fathom, and that’s why it’s so important to be conscious of your accomplishments and to celebrate them whenever you can.
You don’t have to be a doctor or a professor or anything to make a difference in the world, and that’s something that you should embrace and embrace wholeheartedly.
It’s one of the best things you can do to raise your own self-esteem and bring out your inner happiness. You’re here to make a difference in the world, and you’re only as good as the impact you’re making on others.
Grow A Little Every Day
Life is made up of lots of little moments. They pass by quickly but we should be conscious of every single one of them. Our lives are not perfect and neither are our days. We make mistakes and sometimes those mistakes turn into disasters.
Every day, I try to focus on a few small things that I can do to make my life a little bit better, a little bit brighter.
Even though I may fail a lot, I’m still going to continue doing what I can to grow my life.
Just like every little leaf that grows, I am trying to be more aware of the little things I can do every day to help make my life a little better, a little brighter.
Let’s learn from our past and try to improve our future.
There are two types of people in this world – those who grow and those who don’t. It is your choice which one you want to be.
A person who never changes will never go anywhere. They’ll spend their whole lives where they are today. They won’t progress or change.
The one who grows little by little every day will grow stronger every day. They’ll become wiser and better with every passing day.
So, who wants to be a person who doesn’t grow? There’s nothing more boring and uninteresting than someone who’s not growing and changing.
Who wants to be stagnant? No one!
But if you want to be stagnant, then you’ll be the same person you were yesterday. You’ll never move forward in life.
It’s up to you – do you want to be stagnant or do you want to grow?
Touched by another’s kindness
We live in an age where world news is increasingly negative. In our nation’s largest cities, neighbors openly prey upon one another in the name of ideology over humanity. Yet against that dismal backdrop, I was reminded yesterday how lucky I am to live in the Shenandoah Valley. That reminder was given to me by a beautiful little girl.
I was driving down the 340, nearing my home in Bentonville when, to the best of my knowledge, the engine in my truck blew up. With a big shuddering “thunk” smoke filled the cabin and the vehicle controls locked up. I was able to yank left, cross the oncoming lane and aim for an empty parking lot, stomping the brakes. The truck shuddered to a smoking rest in front of a small ice cream shop.
People were seated only yards away; until my dramatic arrival they had been enjoying ice cream on a quiet afternoon. Among them was a lovely mom and her small daughter. I noticed that the girl was tugging her mom’s hand, pulling her towards me. They were talking to each other; mom looked at me, then nodded to the child. They walked up.
Mom explained that the little girl’s response to seeing me skid to a stop was neither fear nor alarm, but to bow her head and pray that I was safe inside. When I emerged from the smoke intact, the girl then asked her mom if they could come over and let me know she would keep praying for me in my time of trouble.
I was taught as a boy that angels watch over us; that they walk among us. Today my angel stood just a couple feet tall, with a shy smile and a kindness that put everything else into perspective. I was touched beyond words and hope by some chance this gives me the opportunity to say thank you.
The Abortion Decision
Few court cases have been as controversial in the United States as 1973’s Roe v. Wade decision. It has become one of the major touchstones in American politics ever since. As controversial as it is, the fact that a shift in power on the Supreme Court has overturned Roe v. Wade has led to a great deal of political and legal turmoil. A lot of the frustration concerns how a modern court can just overturn a previous court’s decision simply because of a shift in ideology. However, historically speaking, this is not new. There have been reversals in the Supreme Court before that were just as controversial and saw as much an attack against the high court as the recent Roe reversal.
First, the law. The decision did not make abortions illegal. It simply put the decision for legality back to the states where it had been before 1973. Elected legislators will now make the decisions, not the courts. The U. S. Supreme Court, in a 5-4 decision, claimed the original Roe v. Wade was not made on Constitutional grounds, as the Constitution does not mention abortion. Nor does any federal law or common law. The idea is that a federal law allowing abortion should be made by Congress, not the courts. Until then, the Supreme Court said it should be a state issue. According to the Tenth Amendment, “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”
As I said, this is not the first time the Supreme Court overturned a decision from a previous court and one that brought about a similar emotional response. The case was the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education that overturned the 1896 Plessy v. Ferguson case that allowed for segregation. In that infamous 1896 case, the court ruled that segregation was legal if separate and equal accommodations were made. In other words, you could deny Black children admittance to White schools if an equal Black school was provided.
There are some similarities between the Brown decision and the current one. In both cases, a Republican president made a new judicial appointment after an extended time of Democratic leadership. With the Roe case, Trump’s appointment of Amy Barrett tipped the balance of the Supreme Court from left to right. The Brown decision was a bit different as the entire Supreme Court was appointed by Democrats after the five terms of Roosevelt and Truman when Dwight D. Eisenhower won the presidency. Yet even with a completely Democratic court, there was still a deep division. Unlike today, the parties were not completely ideological on one side. Roosevelt did not start off his presidency on the far left and many in the party, especially in the south where Democrats had been the strongest for the longest period, still held conservative views. As such, the Supreme Court was not so much divided between two parties as it was divided on the role of the high court. While the entire court were “New Dealers,” half of the court believed it was not the job of the court to make policy, only to interpret the law. The other half, however, were more activists who believed the courts should play a role in civil liberty.
The change happened when Chief Justice Fred M. Vinson died, and the newly elected Republican President Eisenhower appointed Earl Warren as Chief Justice. Vinson had supported the “separate but equal” clause in Plessy and ordered schools like the University of Oklahoma to allow Ada Lois Sipuel, a Black woman, entrance into law school because there was not an equal facility in the state for her. Yet it was Warren who turned the court to a majority of activist judges and went as far as ruling segregation illegal in Brown.
Where the two cases continue to have similarities is in the fall-out. Legally, Warren and the Supreme Court took a hit, being accused of trying to overtake the role of Congress and going against the will of the people’s elected representatives. Nineteen Senators and 81 Representatives wrote the “Southern Manifesto,” stating, “We regard the decision of the Supreme Court in the school cases as a clear abuse of judicial power. It climaxes a trend in the Federal judiciary undertaking to legislate, in derogation of the authority of Congress, and to encroach upon the reserved rights of the States and the people. The original Constitution does not mention education. Neither does the 14th amendment nor any other amendment. The debates preceding the submission of the 14th amendment clearly show that there was no intent that it should affect the systems of education maintained by the States. The very Congress which proposed the amendment subsequently provided for segregated schools in the District of Columbia.”
More interesting was the end of the Manifesto, which makes similar arguments as pro-abortion advocates today: “With the gravest concern for the explosive and dangerous condition created by this decision and inflamed by outside meddlers; We reaffirm our reliance on the Constitution as the fundamental law of the land. We decry the Supreme Court’s encroachments on rights reserved to the States and to the people, contrary to established law and to the Constitution. We commend the motives of those States which have declared the intention to resist forced integration by any lawful means. We pledge ourselves to use all lawful means to bring about a reversal of this decision which is contrary to the Constitution and to prevent the use of force in its implementation.” Like today, the arguments are about the courts taking away the rights of the people.
Please note that I am not arguing for or against abortion or calling pro-abortion advocates the same as 1950s racists. Yet, historically speaking, we have seen similar Supreme Court decisions that brought about just as much contention and fighting about the role of the courts, especially when changing a law that has been around for so long.
Dr. James Finck is an Associate Professor of History at the University of Science and Arts of Oklahoma in Chickasha. He is Chair of the Oklahoma Civil War Symposium. Follow Historically Speaking at www.Historicallyspeaking.blog.