Anytime you’re prescribed a new medication, it’s important that you understand its effects and how to use it. This makes it possible to avoid dangerous drug interactions and safely navigate side effects. You or your caregiver should ask your doctor the following questions when starting a new medication.
1. What’s the name of the medicine and why do I need to take it?
2. How often should it be taken, and when specifically should the doses be taken?
3. What’s the correct dosage?
4. Do I need to take it with food? Are there foods or beverages I should avoid when taking this medication?
5. If I need to take the medication “as needed,” what does that mean?
6. How long will the medication take to work?
7. Will the medication interact with other medications, supplements or vitamins I’m taking? Should any of these be discontinued or adjusted?
8. Can I drive when taking this medication?
9. If I miss a dose, what should I do?
10. What are the possible side effects? Should some of them prompt an appointment or an emergency room visit?
11. Will I need a refill? If so, do I need a new prescription each time (as is the case with some opioids)?
While it may seem excessive to ask so many questions, doing so will ensure your safety.
One virus was the scourge of humans
As bad as Covid-19 has been, it is not even close to the worst viral disease that has swept humanity.
That honor probably goes to smallpox, a disease so toxic that it wiped out entire populations, killing up to 500 million people in the 20th century alone. It was especially deadly for children, killing up to 80 percent. Survivors of any age were left disfigured, blind, or both. After exposure, symptoms began within a week to 19 days. High fever, fatigue, aches, and vomiting appeared first, followed by red sores on the face, hands, arms, and, finally, the trunk of the body. These sores left deep, pitted scars on survivors.
According to estimates by the Centers for Disease Control, the COVID-19 virus kills between 0.26 percent and 0.4 percent of infected people. Smallpox killed no less than 20 percent and up to 60 percent in some populations.
According to the Annals of Internal Medicine, the earliest written accounts were from China in about 400 BC, but possibly earlier.
The good news
Today smallpox is gone. The last case in the U.S. was in 1949 and the last case in the world was in 1978. Today the only remnants of smallpox are the light scars left by vaccinations on people born before the 1980s. In 1979, it was declared eradicated after massive inoculation campaigns on every continent. It is thought to live only as a sample in three labs in the world.
For more than a thousand years, people knew that once a person contracted smallpox, they would ever after be immune. This knowledge led to the first genuine vaccinations.
In China, as early as 400 BC, smallpox scabs were ground up and injected into the noses of healthy people.
The first western experimentation was in 1789 by English doctor Edward Jenner, who found that a similar virus, cowpox, could protect humans. The technique, which used fluid from an active smallpox sore, was scratched into the skin or vein.
The technique was not perfect. People contracted a fever and perhaps some sores, but recovered. However, there was a risk of contracting active disease.
3 educational apps that teach kids about their health
Help your children learn more about their health. Here are three great apps for curious kids.
1. Caillou Check Up
This app lets your kids enact a visit to the doctor, which can sometimes be scary or stressful. It covers routine procedures like taking a temperature, checking blood pressure, and administering a shot. Every interaction is presented in a stress-free, positive light and the app helps children learn what to expect when visiting the doctor. The app is available for both iOS and Android devices.
2. Wash Your Hands Ben The Koala
3. GlucoZor World
With this app, your child can adopt a diabetic dinosaur. They can play with him in various ways, but they also need to take care of him by feeding him a balanced diet and giving him the correct dose of insulin. In addition, the quizzes in the app will help kids learn more about diabetes. The app is available for both iOS and Android.
These apps are all free and will encourage your kids to learn more about their health.
Vaccine technologies: Why a COVID vaccine will take months, not centuries
The smallpox virus raged among humans for 10,000 years before a leap of insight led to the vaccine that killed it forever. The insight took about 300 years to develop.
Today, in the wake of the COVID-19 crisis, drug companies throughout the world are experimenting with vaccines. One company, Moderna, took 42 days to create an experimental vaccine.
Why so fast?
The most obvious reason is the research infrastructure: Laboratories, drug companies, medical systems — systems we take for granted — have never before been available on such a wide scale. Humans are in the era of science and technology.
Still, of the seven known coronaviruses, there are no known human vaccines.
According to Johns Hopkins Senior Scholar Dr. Amesh A. Adalja, the key to the newly rapid development of vaccines is new vaccine platform technologies. Writing in leapsmag.com, Adalja says these platforms use the same building blocks to make more than one vaccine. Using the basic platform, researchers are able to, in effect, switch out one targeted virus (or bacteria or other organisms) like a person switches out a video game cartridge. One example of that is the Ebola vaccine, which uses another virus as a platform with the Ebola protein inserted.
A variety of different approaches are being used to create a COVID vaccine. Moderna is using an RNA approach. Inovio is using a DNA model in which genetic material is injected into the platform and human cells translate it into a viral protein. At that point the immune system makes antibodies.
Other approaches include nanoparticles (by Novavax), while other companies try to adapt an avian coronavirus vaccine.
According to Adalja, a coronavirus vaccine could possibly confer protection against other human coronaviruses, eliminating their use as a biological threat in the future.
And, even curing a common cold.
Be careful out there this summer
Beautiful grass and long stretches of parkland offer an open invitation for summer activity. But it can be an invitation for aches and pains if your body isn’t prepared for vigorous exercise.
The long quarantine period means that people might not be as ready for summer exercise as they have been.
Orthopedists at Northwestern Memorial Caremark Physical Therapy Center in Chicago say these are the most common summer sports injuries and how to prevent and treat them.
Running: Knee cap pain. To prevent it, build up miles gradually. Warm-up slowly. Stretch before running. Treatment includes rest, strengthening thigh muscles.
Tennis: Tennis elbow (tendinitis). Improve your technique. Gradually build up time of play, which should be no more than two hours a day. Rackets should have properly fitted grip and string tension. Treatment includes rest, strengthening the forearm with exercises.
Golf: Low back pain. Practice proper swing mechanics. Condition for strength and flexibility. Do stretching exercises before playing. Treatment includes rest, stretching, strengthening exercises, adjusting your swing.
Cycling: Neck and backache. To prevent aches, raise the handlebars and change positions often. Treatment includes rest, strengthening.
Volleyball: Condition for strength during the season. Stretch and warm up gradually. Treatment includes rest, stretching, strengthening the rotator cuff with exercise.
Basketball: Ankle sprain. Condition and stretch. Tape ankles before playing if you are prone to sprains. Treatment includes Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation (RICE).
Trigger finger: causes and treatments
If your fingers are frequently stiff and un¬comfortable, especially in the morning, you may be developing stenosing tenosynovitis, better known as trigger finger. This common condition causes discomfort when flexing or extending the affected finger, which is often the thumb or ring finger. Bending or straitening it may result in a palpable snap. In severe cases, the finger may get stuck in a bent position.
Trigger finger is the result of inflammation in the flexor tendon sheath (the protective covering that surrounds the tendons in your fingers). This causes the affected finger to become partially or fully immobilized. Prolonged inflammation may result in nodules forming in the tendon, thereby restricting the finger’s movements even further.
If you think you may be suffering from trigger finger, be sure to make an appointment with your doctor.
Farm safety: how to protect outdoor workers from heat stress
Heat-related ailments are common among agricultural workers. Here’s how they can stay safe outdoors this summer.
1. Drink plenty of water. Heat exhaustion occurs when the body loses too much salt and water due to excess sweating. For this reason, it’s important for outdoor workers to remain hydrated.
2. Take breaks in the shade. Heatstroke, which is a serious condition, occurs after prolonged exposure to extreme heat. Therefore, outdoor workers need cool, shady places where they can rest and should take five- to 15-minute breaks every hour. This is especially important during periods of intense heat and for those who wear protective gear.
3. Don’t rush through tasks. Outdoor agricultural workers should build up their heat tolerance gradually. Initially, they’ll need to move slowly and take frequent breaks, but this is more efficient than dealing with a heat-related illness.
4. Know the signs. All outdoor farmworkers should know the signs and symptoms of heat-related ailments and feel comfortable reporting them. Supervisors should also be able to spot them.
Heat-related ailments can be dangerous and lead to serious complications, especially when treatment is delayed. Make sure you have a plan to handle heat-related health emergencies and that workers and supervisors know about it.
Know the signs
These symptoms of heat stress should never be ignored:
• Muscle cramps
• Shallow breathing
• Rapid pulse or heartbeat
• Red, hot skin
• Lack of sweating