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A history of roads in Virginia: Special action in Northern Virginia

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Sections of the Fairfax County Parkway were built with county, state and federal funds.

Due to the critical transportation needs in Northern Virginia, those localities took the lead in adopting alternative financing methods for highway construction and improvement projects.

Northern Virginia was first in using a “proffer” system that allowed the counties to negotiate with private developers in zoning matters so the developers paid for needed public improvements, such as new streets and schools, in return for favorable zoning decisions.

Some local governments also issued their own bonds for highway work. Proceeds from these bond sales were used either to supplement state funds or to build road projects for which state funds were not available.

In 1988, the General Assembly, with the support of Gov. Baliles, approved legislation that allowed private companies to build and operate for-profit toll roads. Companies must have their plans approved by state and local officials before building, and the toll structure must be approved by the State Corporation Commission. Private firms took the lead in other highway projects in Northern Virginia. The first 1.5-mile segment of one of Fairfax County’s most-needed roads was built by a developer in conjunction with construction of a major office park.

County, state, and federal funds were used to build other sections of the 35-mile Fairfax County Parkway. Another example of public and private sector cooperation was the financing of the improvements to Route 28 in Northern Virginia. The state sold bonds to widen and upgrade the heavily congested road near Dulles Airport, with the owners of commercial and industrial land in the area paying off the  bonds through a special property tax. This first special tax district was authorized by the General Assembly in 1987. Since then, similar tax districts have been permitted
in other areas of the state.

The transportation initiatives and increased funding since 1986 meant a doubling, and in some areas a tripling, of the highway construction program. That kind of expansion in a short time frame could have led to problems if steps to address them were not taken. There were two questions in particular that had to be answered: could the road-building industry absorb the additional work, especially without a jump in prices, and could VDOT manage such an expanded program?

The answer to both questions was “yes.” The COT 21 members had looked into the first, and Gov. Baliles and the legislature had taken steps to deal with the second. The cost of highway construction remained stable, in part because of the increased competition for the road-building dollars. The number of contractors interested in working on Virginia’s roads increased, as did the number who bid on the various construction projects.

The department took several steps to discourage and detect collusion while making sure bids and prices remained competitive in the expanded construction program. Among the steps was the creation of the nation’s first full-time, multi-person, antitrust unit in a state transportation agency.

When Gov. Baliles first proposed his transportation initiatives, he brought in a management expert, Ray D. Pethtel, to head the 11,000-employee agency. Pethtel, who previously had served as head of JLARC, instituted a series of changes within the agency to make it more efficient and effective.

The time it took to complete highway projects was cut 20 percent, and the job was being done with fewer people per dollars spent. Substantial authority was decentralized to field offices around the state. Training was given new emphasis, along with increased communication with employees, the general public, elected officials, construction contractors, design and engineering consultants, minority-owned businesses, and others.

Use of computers and other technology increased in areas from surveying to drafting.

Produced by the
Virginia Department of Transportation
Office of Public Affairs
1401 E. Broad Street
Richmond, VA 23219
VirginiaDOT.org

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Automotive

Car care: 6 key fluids to check before winter

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The fluids in your car help ensure that its various components, the engine included, can operate at their peak. Before winter arrives, it’s essential to ensure they’re topped up. Here are six fluids you need to check.

1. Motor oil
Motor oil lubricates and cleans the engine, thereby reducing friction between its moving parts. Wait about 15 minutes after turning your car off to check the oil level. When refilling the oil, gradually add small quantities until the maximum level has been reached.

2. Brake fluid

This hydraulic fluid is crucial to the functioning of your car’s brake system. When the brake fluid is running low, the brake warning light on your dashboard (an exclamation point inside a circle) should light up. The brake fluid reservoir is located at the rear of the engine compartment on the driver’s side.

3. Transmission fluid
Transmission fluid lubricates moving parts, facilitates gear shifts, and cools the transmission. To check how much of this fluid your car has, start the engine and inspect the transmission dipstick, typically located on the driver’s side of the engine compartment. In some manual transmission cars, the dipstick is difficult to access and the task of checking the transmission is best left to a professional.

4. Coolant
Coolant is responsible for heat transfer in the engine and prevents damage caused by boiling or freezing. The coolant reservoir is transparent and found near the radiator. It should never be opened while the radiator is still hot. It’s recommended that you check the reservoir for leaks every few weeks and change the coolant according to your car manufacturer’s recommendations.

5. Gear oil
Also called differential fluid, gear oil lubricates the gears that transfer power from the driveshaft to the wheel axles. Get your gear oil level checked by a mechanic before winter.

6. Power steering fluid
Power steering fluid is essential to the functioning of the power steering system in vehicles with this feature. Power steering fluid needs to be changed about every four years or when the liquid has turned light brown. The reservoir is located in the engine compartment and marked with a steering wheel symbol.

In addition, make sure to keep an eye on your windshield washer fluid level. Winter road conditions can quickly cause a mess and being able to see clearly will keep you, your passengers and other road users safe.

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Pros and cons of studded tires

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Driving on icy roads is hazardous, even if your car is equipped with winter tires. For extra traction in winter driving conditions, some drivers use studded tires. Here’s what you should know about them.

What are studded tires?
Studded tires have small metal studs that protrude a fraction of an inch from the tire. The studs claw into frozen precipitation on roadways, thereby improving traction.

How are tire studs installed?

Tire studs can only be installed on “studdable” tires. These tires with stud holes into which studs can be either screwed or snapped, depending on the tire model. In most cases, the studs need to be snapped into place with a stud gun. Most tire shops are able to perform stud installations.

Note that stud sizes vary, and you’ll need to select the correct stud size for your tire model.

What are the advantages to tire studs?
Studded tires increase your car’s traction on icy roads. When drivers accelerate, brake, or turn on ice or hard-packed snow, the studs work in conjunction with the winter tire tread to improve the car’s handling.

There are, however, a few drawbacks to studded tires. For one thing, when the road isn’t icy or snowy the studs will decrease traction, as the tire tread won’t adhere to the road as well. In addition, they can produce additional road noise and take a toll on paved roads, as studded tires wear down the pavement at a higher rate than normal winter tires.

If you plan to use studded tires, make sure you get the studs removed when spring arrives. In fact, in most states, there’s a specific time frame (usually encompassing five to seven months) during which the use of studded tires is permitted. Also note that there are some states, such as Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Illinois, where the use of studded tires is prohibited.

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5 accessories for warm winter driving

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If you’re tired of sitting in a chilly car, treat yourself to greater comfort this winter. Here are five accessories that will help keep you warm.

1. Remote car starter
Nobody likes getting into a cold car. With a remote car starter, you can safely turn on your car a couple of minutes before leaving so that it’s nice and toasty when you climb in.

2. Heated car seat covers

Heated car seat covers are simple to install and can make winter driving much more pleasant, especially if you have leather or vinyl seats.

3. Heated steering wheel cover
People who don’t like wearing gloves while driving can opt for a heated steering wheel cover instead. This accessory puts a warm, breathable layer between your hands and the wheel. Plus, heated steering wheel covers come in a variety of styles.

4. Leather gloves
A good pair of driving gloves not only keeps your hands warm but also offers protection, flexibility, and grip. Look for quality leather driving gloves with polyester, wool, or cashmere lining.

5. Windshield de-icer
With a windshield de-icer, you can spend less time out in the cold scraping your windshield. De-icer formulas are able to melt away frost, ice, and snow in a matter of seconds, allowing you to make quick work of an otherwise tedious chore.

Finally, make sure to be careful on the road. The last thing you want is to get stuck standing out in the cold waiting for a tow truck.

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Winter tires: 3 mistakes to avoid

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If there are snow and ice on the roads, winter tires will help keep you safe while driving in these conditions. Here are three mistakes people are prone to making when it comes to installing them.

1. Waiting to put them on
Summer tires and all-season tires stiffen up when the temperature dips below 45 degrees Fahrenheit, thereby reducing their ability to grip the road. Winter tires, on the other hand, remain supple, providing optimal traction in cold weather. For this reason, it’s best to consider the temperature when deciding on what date to install your winter tires.

2. Skipping the inspection

To do their job properly, winter tires have to be in good condition. Before putting yours on, make sure they have no cracks and a tread depth of at least 6/32 inches. Consider getting a tread depth gauge to measure this precisely. If the tread depth is close to the recommended limit, it’s best to get new tires as worn-out ones won’t be able to guarantee your safety for the whole season.

3. Choosing the wrong ones
Are you shopping for a new set of winter tires? If so, be aware that certain tires perform best on snow while others do better on ice. It’s important to take into account the road conditions you encounter most frequently. Also, consider your individual driving habits.

Though winter tires can improve traction when it’s cold out, they should be removed once the temperature rises above 45 degrees Fahrenheit for longer than a week. Winter tires wear out faster on warm, dry pavement and don’t perform as well as all-season and summer tires in these road conditions.

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5 tips for picking out a car for your teen

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Are you buying your teenager their first car? If so, here are five tips for choosing the right vehicle for your teen.

1. Focus on safety features
Even if you choose an inexpensive car, safety features aren’t something you want to skimp on. Features such as anti-lock brakes and electronic stability control are a must. More advanced safety features like blind-spot warning systems, backup cameras, and lane departure warnings are good to have.

2. Size it up

While small cars tend to be more affordable, they also offer less crash protection due to their size and weight. Sturdier vehicles such as mid-and full-sized passenger cars and mid-sized SUVs are a safer bet. However, don’t go too big: large SUVs and trucks have the highest rollover rate. Plus, they can be expensive to drive as they consume more gas.

3. No sports cars
Driving a sporty car may give your teenager the urge to speed and drive recklessly. A car with less horsepower is a better choice.

4. Look at the safety ratings
Consult the IIHS crashworthiness ratings to find out which cars will best protect your teenager in the event of a collision.

5. Opt for connectivity
It’s hard to keep teens off their phones. To help prevent your teenager from texting while driving, consider getting a car with smartphone connectivity.

Regardless of which type of car you buy your teen, be sure to impress on them the importance of safe driving before you hand over the keys.

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Pop quiz: are you a winter driving whiz?

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Winter driving can be hazardous, but being well-informed can help keep you safe. Here’s a lighthearted quiz that will point you toward the information you need.

1. How often should you change your windshield wipers?
A) Every full moon
B) Annually, in the fall

C) Once per century

2. When should winter tires be installed?
A) Once the outside temperature drops to 45 degrees Fahrenheit
B) Once the birds begin their migration
C) At sunset on a Tuesday

3. How often should you wash your car in winter?
A) About once a month
B) Never: the snow will clean it
C) As often as your neighbor does

4. What should you do if your lock freezes?
A) Force your key to turn the lock and pray that it doesn’t break
B) Blow on the key to heat it up
C) Use a lock de-icer (sold in automotive shops) or heat the key with a lighter

5. What emergency items should you equip your car with in winter?
A) A shovel, windshield washer fluid and warm clothing
B) A blanket, pillow and sleep mask
C) A bikini, sunscreen and flip-flops

6. What should you do if you find yourself behind a snow removal vehicle?
A) Put the pedal to the metal and weave around it
B) Be patient: the road conditions are sure to be better behind the vehicle anyway
C) Wildly honk your horn to show your annoyance

7. What should you do if the back of your vehicle starts to skid on ice?
A) Slam the brakes and scream like a banshee
B) Let go of the wheel and close your eyes so you don’t see what happens next
C) Slowly turn the front wheels in the direction of the rear wheels while looking where you want to go

Congratulations — chances are pretty good you aced it!

Answers
1-B, 2-A, 3-A, 4-C, 5-A, 6-B, 7-C

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all-day Small Business Saturday @ Front Royal, Virginia
Small Business Saturday @ Front Royal, Virginia
Dec 5 all-day
Small Business Saturday @ Front Royal, Virginia
Why should Small Business Saturday just be celebrated on the Saturday after Thanksgiving? Buy Local – Shop Local – Eat Local – Support Front Royal’s Small Business Community and stay local! Small Business Saturdays –[...]
7:00 am 64th Annual Pancake Day @ Warren County High School
64th Annual Pancake Day @ Warren County High School
Dec 5 @ 7:00 am – 1:00 pm
64th Annual Pancake Day @ Warren County High School
The Kiwanis Club of Front Royal is celebrating its 75 anniversary this year and are committed to holding the annual Pancake Day fundraising event. This event raises significant funds which are put back directly into[...]
11:00 am Holiday House Tours @ Sky Meadows State Park
Holiday House Tours @ Sky Meadows State Park
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Holiday House Tours @ Sky Meadows State Park
Enjoy special tours of our Historic Mount Bleak house during this festive season. Visit each of the rooms in this stone manor and discover how the people who called Sky Meadows “home” celebrated the holidays[...]
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Rotary Club Cash Fair @ Online Event
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Rotary Club Cash Fair @ Online Event
It’s that time of year for Rotary Club of Front Royal’s annual Cash Fair, and we are going virtual this year due to COVID. This is one of our biggest fundraisers of the year and[...]
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all-day 2021 Dare to Dream Enrichment Gr... @ Front Royal Women’s Resource Center
2021 Dare to Dream Enrichment Gr... @ Front Royal Women’s Resource Center
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2021 Dare to Dream Enrichment Grant Application @ Front Royal Women’s Resource Center
Front Royal Women’s Resource Center (FRWRC) Beginning on November 1, 2020, to accept Applications for 2021 DARE TO DREAM GRANTS (Take classes, start a business, purchase a computer, learn a new skill, train for a[...]
11:00 am Holiday House Tours @ Sky Meadows State Park
Holiday House Tours @ Sky Meadows State Park
Dec 6 @ 11:00 am – 4:00 pm
Holiday House Tours @ Sky Meadows State Park
Enjoy special tours of our Historic Mount Bleak house during this festive season. Visit each of the rooms in this stone manor and discover how the people who called Sky Meadows “home” celebrated the holidays[...]
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all-day 2021 Dare to Dream Enrichment Gr... @ Front Royal Women’s Resource Center
2021 Dare to Dream Enrichment Gr... @ Front Royal Women’s Resource Center
Dec 13 all-day
2021 Dare to Dream Enrichment Grant Application @ Front Royal Women’s Resource Center
Front Royal Women’s Resource Center (FRWRC) Beginning on November 1, 2020, to accept Applications for 2021 DARE TO DREAM GRANTS (Take classes, start a business, purchase a computer, learn a new skill, train for a[...]
11:00 am Holiday House Tours @ Sky Meadows State Park
Holiday House Tours @ Sky Meadows State Park
Dec 13 @ 11:00 am – 4:00 pm
Holiday House Tours @ Sky Meadows State Park
Enjoy special tours of our Historic Mount Bleak house during this festive season. Visit each of the rooms in this stone manor and discover how the people who called Sky Meadows “home” celebrated the holidays[...]
Dec
19
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11:00 am Holiday House Tours @ Sky Meadows State Park
Holiday House Tours @ Sky Meadows State Park
Dec 19 @ 11:00 am – 4:00 pm
Holiday House Tours @ Sky Meadows State Park
Enjoy special tours of our Historic Mount Bleak house during this festive season. Visit each of the rooms in this stone manor and discover how the people who called Sky Meadows “home” celebrated the holidays[...]
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20
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all-day 2021 Dare to Dream Enrichment Gr... @ Front Royal Women’s Resource Center
2021 Dare to Dream Enrichment Gr... @ Front Royal Women’s Resource Center
Dec 20 all-day
2021 Dare to Dream Enrichment Grant Application @ Front Royal Women’s Resource Center
Front Royal Women’s Resource Center (FRWRC) Beginning on November 1, 2020, to accept Applications for 2021 DARE TO DREAM GRANTS (Take classes, start a business, purchase a computer, learn a new skill, train for a[...]