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From the moon to your table, turkey is tops at Thanksgiving

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When Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin tucked into their first meal on the moon, it was foil packets of roasted turkey and all the trimmings. With their special packaging, they likely were not concerned about food safety, but it should be at the top of your to-do list for the holidays. Be sure that you purchase, store, prepare and serve food safely and handle leftovers appropriately.

The holiday season requires special consideration to keep food safe. Parties, dinners and special events mean feeding large groups over extended periods of time, and that adds to the need for extra care. Here is a quick refresher course from the Virginia Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services.

Avoid the Danger Zone. Harmful bacteria can grow rapidly in the danger zone between 40° F and 140° F. Try to make food shopping your last errand before going home. At the store, select frozen and refrigerated foods just before going to the checkout register, and when you get home, store them promptly and properly.

Clean thoroughly. Make sure everything that contacts food is as clean as possible. Start with clean hands because they are the most frequently used utensil in the kitchen and can spread bacteria very quickly. Clean dishes and utensils thoroughly, launder dishcloths and towels frequently and sanitize work surfaces, cutting boards and sponges with a mild bleach solution between uses.

Store safely. Plan ahead so you will have adequate storage space in the refrigerator and freezer for all perishable items. This is a good time to clean out and throw away leftovers. Keep cold foods cold – 40° Fahrenheit or less in the refrigerator and 0° Fahrenheit or less in the freezer. Keep a thermometer in each area and remember to check it often.

Cook correctly. Cooking enhances the flavor of food, but its main function is to kill disease-causing microorganisms. To do this job effectively, the internal temperature of the food must reach the recommended level as shown on an instant-read thermometer: beef – at least 150° F; pork – 160° F; poultry – 165° F. Cook ground meats until there is no pink left and the internal temperature reaches 160° F. Reheat leftovers to at least 165° F to kill bacteria that might have multiplied in the cooling process. Cook meat, poultry, fish, egg dishes and casseroles thoroughly in one operation. Do not cook partially and plan to complete the cooking process later.

Separate. Keep raw and cooked foods and their juices separate at all times. Be sure that raw meats do not drip on other foods in the grocery basket, in grocery bags or in the refrigerator. Marinate meats on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator to keep juices from spilling on other foods and do not reuse the marinade. Never use the same plate or utensil for cooked food that you used to prepare or transport the raw product.

Entertain safely. Keep the two-hour rule in mind when serving a large meal, buffet or reception. Do not leave perishables at room temperature for more than two hours in cool weather or one hour when it is warmer. Offer food in small serving dishes and replace them often, using a clean dish each time. Keep the replacement food in the refrigerator or oven to maintain the proper temperature until serving. To keep hot foods hot when serving them, consider using an electric serving dish, warming tray or chafing dish. Nest dishes in bowls of ice to keep them cold.

Manage leftovers. Refrigerate leftovers as quickly as possible, discarding any that have been at room temperature for two hours or more. Divide large quantities of hot foods into smaller containers so they will cool more quickly when refrigerated. Reheat all leftovers to at least 165° F and heat gravy to a rolling boil. Use cooked dishes within three days and stuffing and gravy within two days.

Finally, when in doubt, throw it out.

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Discovering textured vegetable protein

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As more people eliminate meat and animal products from their diet, the food industry is adapting by offering an increasing number of plant-based products. Textured vegetable protein (TVP) is one such innovation, and here’s why it’s gaining in popularity.

It can replace ground meat
Rehydrated TVP has a texture that’s remarkably similar to that of ground beef. This makes it a popular choice for things like spaghetti sauce, shepherd’s pie, hamburgers and tacos. As a bonus, it’s cheaper than ground beef.

It’s dry and easy to store
In addition to being affordable, TVP keeps for a very long time in its dried form. It’ll stay fresh for as long as six to nine months at room temperature and for even longer if frozen or refrigerated. Note, however, that it’ll only keep for three days in the refrigerator once rehydrated.

It’s easy to cook with
Preparing TVP is as easy as adding an equal amount of hot liquid, such as water or broth. If using it in a dish that contains liquid, you can simply incorporate the TVP in the sauce or stock. It’s a highly versatile ingredient that absorbs seasonings well, so it can be used in a variety of cuisine styles. It can also be used as a way to boost the nutritional value of any dish.

It’s rich in nutrients
TVP contains almost twice as much protein as ground meat. It’s also rich in dietary fiber, iron and calcium. Even better, it’s low in both fat and sodium. Its calorie content is effectively the same as ground beef, meaning it provides just as much energy at a fraction of the cost and fat content.

TVP is easy to find in bulk stores, grocery stores and natural food stores. It offers a convenient alternative to meat and could be especially useful when transitioning to a plant-based diet.

TVP is made from soy and sometimes referred to as textured soy protein, soy meat or soy chunks.

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Lenten breakfast: Uova in purgatorio

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As a Lenten dish, Eggs in Purgatory (uova in purgatorio) makes perfect sense since it has no meat and you can make purgatory as mild or as hot and spicy as you want!
The dish is nothing more than eggs poached in a tomato sauce — making it a favorite in Italy — but it really transcends cultures.

In Muslim countries, it is called Shakshuka, often made with lamb and feta. In Israel, you’ll find it for dinner with lovely challah bread. There is even a version made with kosher Spam. In Mexico, Huevos Rancheros are generally made with fried eggs with spicy tomato salsa.

The one thing you really need with this recipe is a crusty bread for dipping. Sliced and toasted French bread works well.

Once the eggs are finished, use a soup ladle to dish out a generous portion onto plates.

Super-easy heresy
Here’s one idea for the dish, which will be a Lenten heresy to purists, but is very fast and tasty.

Use olive oil to warm in a pan. Take pasta sauce (without meat, if you are observing Lent) and mix in your favorite salsa, in whatever proportion you prefer. Unlike the proper recipes, you don’t have to saute onions, peppers or other ingredients. Simply warm up the sauce on medium-low heat (preferably in an iron skillet) until it is hot and shimmery. Then make openings for your eggs. Most important, cover the pan so the eggs poach slowly and thoroughly. Cook 2 or 3 minutes for runny yokes.

Add chopped parsley on top for a colorful presentation.

Proper
Many variations on this dish add all sorts of ingredients.

The New York Times recommends browning garlic, red pepper flakes, and (optional) anchovies in the pan, then adding a can of diced tomatoes and a basil sprig. Mash down tomatoes and cook slowly until it becomes a thicker sauce. Add salt and butter and stir in Parmesan.

Bon Appetit recommends using 20 ounces of cherry tomatoes, slightly smashed during cooking, for a three-dimensional look.

Some recipes advise adding greens to the sauce.

For a more Middle Eastern flair, add peppers, sweet paprika, and cumin. Many recipes for Shakshuka offer some wonderful variations.

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3 key nutrients to monitor when switching to a plant-based diet

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Going vegetarian or vegan means you’ll need to review and adjust your eating habits. In particular, you’ll need to secure alternative sources of protein, iron and zinc. Here’s how.

Protein
The proteins we consume act as basic building blocks in our bodies, allowing us to build and repair tissue and to make hormones, enzymes and other important chemicals. While meat is a great source, vegetarians can get their fill by consuming dairy or eggs. Vegans can get theirs from nuts, pulses and soy products such as tofu, tempeh and textured vegetable protein (TVP).

Iron
Red blood cells contain a protein called hemoglobin, which uses iron to bind oxygen molecules and deliver them to cells throughout our bodies. We don’t produce iron, so we have to get it from food. While iron is present in plants, it’s about twice as hard to assimilate than the iron contained in meat, which is why we need to eat more plants to get the same amount of iron.

Good sources of iron include dark green vegetables like spinach, Brussels sprouts, broccoli and kale as well as quinoa, pulses and tofu. In addition, eating fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C can help us absorb iron.

Zinc
Our immune system needs zinc to function properly, but it’s hard to get it from non-animal sources. Nuts, whole grains, pulses and wheat germ are good sources of zinc. However, much like iron, the zinc in plant matter is harder to assimilate, so you’ll need to eat more of the foods it’s found in.

Reducing or eliminating your meat consumption is likely to improve your health, especially if you adjust your overall diet to avoid deficiencies. However, it’s a good idea to consult a healthcare professional for advice.

In addition to protein, iron and zinc, vegans and vegetarians should also keep an eye on their intake of vitamin B12, vitamin D, omega-3 fatty acids, calcium and iodine.

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America needs more young farmers

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Did you know that less than 10 percent of American farmers are under the age of 35? America needs more young farm operators, but they need help. Here are the factors involved.

Older farmers are retiring
The average American farmer is 58 years old, which means that a large number of them will be retiring in the next few years. Currently, there aren’t enough young farmers to pick up the slack. In fact, while the proportion of young farmers is climbing, they’re still outnumbered by farmers over the age of 65 by six to one.

Without an influx of new agricultural workers, American consumers may end up having to rely on imported food more than before.

Farming practices are changing
Another reason young farmers are needed is that they bring a new perspective to agriculture. For the American agricultural industry to succeed in reliably providing food for the country’s growing population, it needs to adopt more sustainable, efficient and eco-friendly farming practices. Millennial farmers are better positioned to implement green farming technologies than their predecessors.

Young farmers face barriers
Unfortunately, while many millennials are ready to take up farming, few are able to afford land. Even those who inherit farms often lack the financial resources to operate them. The result is that farmland is being sold for commercial and residential development, further restricting access to it.

This could be a problem in the long term, as the demand for food is growing, both worldwide and in the United States.

More states are recognizing the crucial importance of ensuring the future of the agricultural industry. As a result, loan forgiveness programs and grants are increasingly available to prospective farmers, but more work needs to be done to safeguard America’s agricultural future.

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Fats: the good, the bad and the oily

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Dietary fats provide your body with energy and insulation, aid with vitamin absorption and support bodily functions. While some fats are essential, others have severe health risks. Here’s what you should know about the various types of fats.

• Trans fats can raise the level of bad cholesterol, provoke inflammation and increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Hydrogenated vegetable oil, a major source of artificial trans fat, was frequently found in processed and deep-fried foods. As of June 2018, the Food and Drug Administration banned food manufacturers from using it. Small amounts of natural trans fat are present in meat and dairy products.

• Saturated fats occur naturally in animals and provide many of the same benefits as healthy fats. However, a diet rich in saturated fat increases bad cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease. The American Heart Association recommends limiting saturated fat to roughly five percent of your daily caloric intake. Sources of saturated fat include fatty cuts of red meat, dark chicken meat, poultry skin and high-fat dairy products.

• Unsaturated fats are healthy fats containing vitamin E, an antioxidant that helps protect cells. When consumed instead of trans and saturated fats, unsaturated fats help regulate cholesterol levels and prevent cardiovascular disease. Some types of unsaturated fats, particularly polyunsaturated fats, are essential to normal body functioning. They play a role in blood clotting, blood pressure regulation and immune and nervous system function. Nuts, seeds, avocado, fatty fish and various plant-based oils contain high amounts of unsaturated fats.

Fats are a necessary component of a healthy diet. They’re also a major source of calories. Make sure you’re balancing your fat intake with sufficient fruits, vegetables, whole grains and proteins.

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How adopting a plant-based diet could save you money

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Did you know that adopting a vegetarian or vegan diet could save you money? Here’s why plant-based meals are more affordable.

Cheaper protein
The vast majority of plant-based proteins like beans, lentils, peas and tofu are cheaper than the lean animal proteins recommended by public health agencies, including fish and chicken. In addition, dehydrated textured vegetable protein (TVP), which is often used as a replacement for ground beef, is cheaper and can be safely stored for months at a time.

Affordable fruits and vegetables
While the importance of eating a lot of fruits and vegetables is well understood and central to most nutritional guidelines, there’s a persistent misconception that they cost a fortune. This is likely because out-of-season fruits and vegetables need to travel long distances, thereby inflating their sale price.

In practice, it’s possible to eat lots of fruits and vegetables on a budget. In-season produce is often affordable, especially when locally sourced. Frozen fruits are also typically less expensive than their fresh counterparts and they aren’t any less healthy, although you should privilege those with no added sugar. Finally, remember that you don’t need to use the freshest vegetables to make soup.

Adding a few vegetarian or vegan meals to your weekly meal plan will allow you to save money and may even convince you to make a permanent switch to a plant-based diet.

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