It soon became evident, however, that the interstate routes alone would not adequately serve the burgeoning population and the increasing desire for mobility by Virginians in the second half of the 20th century. The spreading suburban growth that marked Virginia and other states in the years after World War II was induced in large part by the flexible mobility permitted by the family auto. Suburban housing development was followed by suburban shopping centers and office buildings. It all placed new demands on the state’s roads and streets. The 20-year improvement plan that had been implemented by the commission in the immediate post-war years had to be revised and updated frequently to keep pace with changing needs and growth patterns.
In 1962, the General Assembly established a new study commission to examine and evaluate highway needs, revenue, fund distribution procedures, and the organization of the Department of Highways. It consisted of one member from each of the eight construction districts and two citizens at large. The study commission members were appointed by Gov. Albertis S. Harrison Jr., in May 1962, with Sen. William F. Stone of Martinsville, an experienced legislator who had been a chief patron of the act calling for the study, chosen as chairman.
For more than a year, the study commission went about its assignment, reviewing nearly every aspect of the highway program. The commission itself probably was the most important highway study group since the 1916 committee that recommended the establishment of the first state highway system.
The Stone commission submitted its report to the governor and the General Assembly in December 1963, in time for its recommendations to be considered at the legislative session beginning the following month. Among its points: “One of the prime factors in inducing business management to select a state for expansion or a new location is a good highway system, which not only is needed for transportation of goods and raw materials but enables employees to be drawn from a wide radius. Some other states have moved ahead of Virginia in expanding their highway systems. We cannot afford to be left behind.”
The study commission also described the motor vehicle as “an essential and integral part of our everyday life. Its impact upon our economy and way of life has reached dimensions which have exceeded all forecasts.”
In an effort to keep up, the commission said, a new arterial network should be developed to supplement the interstate system.
Douglas B. Fugate, who joined the department shortly after graduating from VMI with a degree in civil engineering in 1927, was serving as assistant chief engineer at the time and in 1964, was appointed commissioner by Gov. Harrison. Fugate proposed the arterial network concept to the study commission and thus became chief architect of the network.
“The arterial road program, when completed, will in conjunction with the interstate system connect every city within the commonwealth of 5,000 or more and nearly every town having a population of 3,500 to 5,000. When completed, there will be an arterial route or interstate route within a 40-mile radius of every town in Virginia,” the study commission said.
Development of the network was authorized by the 1964 General Assembly, which also provided additional revenue through increases in the state’s motor vehicle registration and operator’s license fees. As approved, it totaled more than 1,700 miles and was to be developed chiefly by building new two-lane roadways parallel to existing two-lane primary routes to create four-lane, divided facilities. More than 70 bypasses of cities and towns were to be constructed, to free local streets for local traffic, and many of the bypasses would be constructed virtually to interstate standards.
The arterial network was half-finished within seven years after it was begun. In some quarters, the network was described as a “model for the nation because of the orderly way in which it ensured up-grading of older primary roads while the interstate system development was still under way.”
In the mid-1950s, when the interstate program was beginning, Virginia had about 300 miles of multi-lane divided highways. With interstate and arterial completion, it later would have slightly more than 3,000 miles of such roads.
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A history of roads in Virginia: Seeking direction at the national level
At the national level, politicians and experts were debating the future direction of transportation policy. For almost four decades, it had been unified by a grand vision, the construction of the interstate highway system. As the last piece of that system was completed and that vision was realized, federal policy no longer had a riveting theme.
Not only that, ear-marking federal funds for particular state and local projects was diffusing the focus at the national level, as the 2005 federal transportation act demonstrated. The act, called SAFETEA-LU (Safe, Accountable, Flexible, Efficient Transportation Equity Act: A Legacy for Users) authorized spending on an unprecedented number of congressionally designated projects. However, it did focus strongly on safety, a new core program in the federal legislation. Under it, states were required to develop a strategic highway safety plan with goals for reducing highway
fatalities and injuries. Virginia was already taking steps in that direction by establishing “Highway Safety Corridors” on high-crash stretches of interstate. In these corridors, state police enforced speed limits more aggressively and higher fines were imposed.
Planners also were asking complicated questions presented by transportation progress in recent decades, such as: How much did the interstate contribute to the break-up of communities? Do transportation projects create sprawl? Should population density of communities be created or changed to support public transit?
Practical problems emerged. An aging population continued to want mobility, in contrast to earlier generations of elderly; and the transportation system needed modification for their continued use. Global trade was expected to double in 20 years, with growing impact on the transportation network—especially in states like Virginia where traffic to major East Coast ports crowds streets and highways.
A history of roads in Virginia: Outsourcing and privatization become key orientations
When Gregory A. Whirley, VDOT inspector general, was named acting transportation commissioner in 2005, he noted the dramatic improvements VDOT and its contracting firms had made in delivering projects on time and within budget. In 2001, only 20 percent of construction projects were finished on time, but by 2006, 83 percent were. Similarly at the turn of the century, 51 percent of the contracts were built within budget, but by 2006 that figure rose to almost 88 percent. Despite this improvement, the commissioner advised employees that they were now competing with the public sector, which might want to perform more of the department’s traditional functions.
The 2006 General Assembly reinforced that possibility by requiring the transportation commissioner to report annually on VDOT’s efforts to outsource, privatize and downsize. This was in the context of the legislators’ debate about how to finance the transportation system in the long term. Projections showed that by 2018, no state funds would be available for construction as the growing maintenance costs of an aging highway system siphoned off construction funds. The debate over new taxes for transportation continued throughout the spring of 2006, delaying approval of a new state budget by a record number of days.
Chipped windshields: repair or replace?
If your windshield gets chipped, it’s important to fix it right away. Chips and cracks rarely stay small and can compromise the strength of your windshield, thereby limiting the protection provided in the event of an accident. Besides, if you deal with the problem promptly, you can often forgo a replacement in favor of a repair. Here’s what you should know.
When is repair possible?
A professional can usually repair a chipped windshield if the following five conditions are met:
1. The chip’s no larger than an inch in diameter.
2. There’s at least a 1.5-inch gap between the point of impact and the edge of the windshield.
3. The chip isn’t within the driver’s field of vision.
4. There are no more than two or three chips to repair.
5. Only the outer layer of glass is damaged.
If these five conditions don’t apply, then chances are you’ll need to replace your windshield. And you’ll want to have this done as soon as possible, as it’s a matter of your safety.
Did you know?
Depending on the specifics of your insurance plan, you may be reimbursed for the costs of your windshield repair. Moreover, the repair shouldn’t affect your premiums or insurance record. Check with your provider to be sure.
A history of roads in Virginia: Persistent pressures on the infrastructure
Relentless pressures mounted on the transportation system in the new century. Motorists’ use of Virginia highways continued to grow rapidly — from 165 million miles traveled daily in 1990 to 220 million by 2005, an increase of 33 percent. Traffic congestion intensified accordingly. Virginia’s transportation infrastructure also was aging, needing repairs and sometimes reconstruction. Because funding for improvements and maintenance was stretched thin, innovative measures were taken to get more out of the network and the dollars appropriated for it.
There also was a new emphasis on operating highways more efficiently, moving traffic smoothly and clearing up traffic incidents swiftly. Smart traffic centers were built in Staunton and Salem similar to those in Northern Virginia, Hampton Roads and metroRichmond. The state also was divided into five operational regions in which traffic controllers and engineers facilitated traffic flow along major corridors. For motorists who called 511 or visited the Internet site at 511va.org, real-time traffic information was available, enabling them to modify travel plans and avoid backups. And by 2005, motorists with Smart Tag or E-ZPass transponders could travel seamlessly along the East Coast without having to stop to pay tolls.
How to identify a car with high resale value: 4 considerations
If you’re in the market for a new vehicle and are concerned with its future resale price, here are four things you’ll want to pay close attention to.
Popular car models are a safe bet. There will always be buyers for Honda Civics, Toyota Corollas, Ford F-150s and other tried-and-true models. Discontinued vehicles, on the other hand, are far less in demand.
Unless you’re getting a high-end sports car, you should avoid bright paint colors like red or yellow. Most people prefer black, white, silver or gray cars, and you restrict the pool of interested buyers by choosing an unconventional hue.
A car equipped with a navigation system, a backup camera, adaptive cruise control and other modern accessories will be easier to sell than one with only standard features. You can expect these extras to be available in an increasing number of vehicles in the years to come and therefore in ever greater demand among car buyers.
4. Extended warranty
Getting an extended warranty on your new car may pay off. In addition to covering the cost of certain repairs when the manufacturer’s warranty expires, it’s also a selling point for potential buyers, as it makes your car a safer investment. After all, used car buyers tend to worry about purchasing a secondhand vehicle only to discover undisclosed issues down the line. Since car warranties are based on the vehicle identification number (VIN), they’re valid for the full term, regardless of ownership.
Thinking ahead and making smart choices when shopping for a car is important. However, it’s equally crucial that you take proper care of your vehicle after you buy it. Stick to the recommended maintenance schedule, and deal with problems right away, before they get worse. Also, be sure to hold onto all your receipts, as you can use them as proof that you took proper care of your car.
A history of roads in Virginia: New thinking about multimodalism
In 2004, as important projects to move cars and trucks were being built, the CTB adopted a policy for integrating bicycle and pedestrian accommodations into the road-building decision-making process. Shortly thereafter, a comprehensive long-range multimodal transportation plan for the commonwealth was developed. Mandated by the General Assembly, the plan is called VTrans2025.
State officials, technical experts, planners, federal officials and citizens conferred in producing the plan. Recommendations in it included additional funding for transportation, new technologies for congestion management, and greater compatibility of land use and transportation planning. VTrans2025 put special focus, however, on transportation projects that connect transit, pedestrian, bike and rail modes.